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Analytical Chemistry
First semester
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Learning outcomes of the course unit

At the end of the course, the student should be able to:
- calculate pH of aqueous solutions
- calculate ionization percentage
- calculate concentration by volumetric analysis
- know basic principles of spectrometric and chromatographic methods
- select the proper aslytical method on the base of analyte properties


Knowledge of the basic principles of general and organic chemistry.

Course contents summary

The objective of this course is to provide students, through theoretical lectures, exercises in the classroom and work in laboratory, knowledge relating to principles of chemical equilibrium in aqueous solutions, volumetric analysis and main instrumental techniques.
Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in aqueous solutions.
Principles of volumetric analysis.
Instrumental analysis: spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods.

Course contents

Analytical chemistry

-Ways of expressing the concentration of solutions: molarity, percentage by weight and by volume, parts per million and related. Preparation of standard solutions by weight and by dilution. Conversion between the various methods of expressing concentration levels. Exercises.
Definition of acids and bases. Auto-ionisation and ionic product of water. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of strong bases and acids. Exercises.
Definition of weak bases and acids. Dissociation constant. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of weak bases and acids. Exercises.
Polyprotic acids. Calculation of pH and concentration of the species present in the equilibrium of solutions of polybasic acids. Distribution curve of equilibrium species on the basis of pH. Exercises.
Calculation of pH of saline solutions. Exercises
Buffer solutions. Calculation of pH of buffer solutions. Buffering capacity. Exercises.

- Principles of volumetric analysis: acid-base titration; oxidation-reduction titrations.

Instrumental analytical chemistry
Spectrophotometric methods. Rotational, vibrational and electronic transitions. Absorption, emission, fluorescence. Lambert-Beer's law.
UV-Vis spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation and applications.
IR spectroscopy: principles, instrumentation and applications
Chromatographic methods. General principles and theory of chromatographic separation. Fundamental parameters in chromatography.
Gas-chromatography (GC): principles, instrumentation and applications.
High pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC): adsorption chromatography, partition chromatography, size-exclusion chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography. Principles, instrumentation and applications.

Recommended readings

- P. Michelin Lausarot, G.A. Vaglio “Stechiometria per la chimica generale” Piccin
- D.C. Harris “Chimica analitica quantitativa” Zanichelli
- D.S. Hage, J.D. Carr "Chimica analitica e analisi quantitativa" Piccin
- D.A. Skoog, D.M. West, F.J. Holler, S.R. Crouch “Fondamenti di chimica analitica” EdiSES

Teaching methods

theoretical lectures and exercises in the classroom

Assessment methods and criteria

- written examination (solution of numerical exercices)
- multiple-choice exam (instrumental analytical chemistry)

Other informations

Cause the COVID-19 emergency, teaching and examination possible changes will be promptly notified to the students