Food Technology 1

Year of erogation: 
Unit Coordinator: 
Second semester
Year of study: 
Language of instruction: 


Learning outcomes of the course unit

Unit Operation Module:
Knowledge and understanding:
At the end of the course, the student will have acquired the basic knowledge about the processes most frequently used in the food industry and about the working principles of the correspondent equipment.
Physical and Sensorial Properties Module:

Applying knowledge and understanding
The student will be able to set up the design of a food process and its equipment

Making judgements
The student will be able to extend the approach used in this course to further processes used in the food industry and related equipment

Communication skills
The student will learn the vocabulary specific for food processing, food safety and food equipment

Learning skills
Students will be able to deepen their knowledge in the field of food processing by independently examining specialized texts, journals or magazines.
Physical and Sensorial Properties Module:
The main objective of this course is to provide students the basic knowledge of food sensory and physical properties and the available techniques for their characterization. In particular, the student should be able to:
1. know the main physical and sensory properties of solid and liquid food products.
2. plan physico and sensory characterization analysis based on food features and experimental hypothesis.
3. Evaluate in an independent way data and information to formulate solutions to simple and well-defined problems to the sector.
4. communicate the knowledge learned about the physico and sensory characterization of food products to other experts or non-experts in the sector, and when started to work, to superiors and / or customers.
5. to connect the different topics dealt with each other and with the basic and related disciplines and to have obtained the cultural tools and the bases to undertake the studies of the master's degree in food sciences and technology with high autonomy.


Unit Operation Module:
There are no compulsory prerequisites, but students are strongly advised to have attended the course of technical physics as well as the frequency of the classes of food microbiology and food chemistry partly delivered in the first semester.
Physical and Sensorial Properties Module:
Basic knowledge on unit operations, food chemistry and food microbiology are strictly requested. Moreover, basics of physics are also requested.

Course contents summary

Unit Operation Module:
Principles of unit operations and processes in the food industry ( Cleaning of equipment and raw materials, Cutting and dimension reduction, Mixing, incorporating, structuring, Heat treatments, Cooling and freezing, Unit operations aimed to food components separation and rheological modification) with examples of the corresponding machines.
Physical and Sensorial Properties Module:
- Basic concepts of rheology of fluids and solids
- Analytical techniques to measure viscosity and texture of food
- Water activity and its measure; sorption isotherm and food stability map
- Image analysis
- Color and its measure
- Colloids and emulsions
- Sensory analysis

Course contents

Unit Operation Module:
Contamination, spoilage and processes
Hygienic requirements
Microbial stability
Heat treatments
Hot filling and aseptic processing
Aseptic packing
Sanitation of raw materials and equipment
Size reduction
Mixing, structuring
Drying and freeze-drying
Separation operations: particles filtration; fluid component, centrifugal separation; liquid liquid extraction and solid liquid extraction
Cooling and freezing
Physical and Sensorial Properties Module:
- Basic concepts of rheology of fluids and solids
- Analytical techniques to measure viscosity and texture of food
- Water activity and its measure; sorption isotherm and food stability map
- Image analysis
- Color and its measure
- Colloids and emulsions
- Sensory analysis

Recommended readings

Unit Operation Module:
• P. J. Fellows “Food Processing Technology: Principles and Practice”
• R. L. Earle “Unit Operations in Food Processing”
• J.G. Brennan “Food Processing Handbook”
Pompei C. (2009) Operazioni unitarie della tecnologia alimentare. CEA Milano
Physical and Sensorial Properties Module:
- materiale .pptx presentazioni utilizzate dalla docente durante le lezioni.
Di approfondimento:
- Sensory evaluation of food: principles and practices, H.T. Lawless, H. Heymann, Chapman & Hall, New York, NY, 1998
- Sensory evaluation techniques 3rd edition, Meilgaard, Civile, Carr, CRC Press, 1999
- Valutazione sensoriale: Aspetti teorici, pratici e metodologici, E. Pagliarini, Hoepli, Milano, 2002
- Food texture and viscosity, concept and measurement, 2nd edition, Bourne, Academic Press, Food Science and Technology, International Series
- Image analysis of food microstructure, Russ, CRC Press, 2005

Teaching methods

Lectures will be held on-site in compliance with safety standards, provided that further instructions on the ongoing health emergency are not implemented. Supporting material will be available on the specific, student-reserved platform (Elly) and will include slide presentations, audio-video aids or video-recording of the lectures.

Assessment methods and criteria

Unit Operation Module:
The learning test will be carried out through a written test both in presence or via web. The test is composed by 2 parts. The first part consists of 10 closed-ended questions for the access to the exam; maximum errors for closed-ended questions will be 2 on 10, otherwise the student won't go on the second part. The second part contains 3 open questions. The time available to the student will be 120 minutes. Students who gained at least 18/30 in the written examination may apply to take an oral supplementation (which will account for 5% of the final grade), or verbalize the mark of the written test.
The value of every open questions is 10 points. Honor will be given to students that will answer correctely and completely to all questions.
Duration of the test will be 120 minutes.
Physical and Sensorial Properties Module:
Written exam on the topics of the course consisting of 4 open questions (maximum 8 points for each question). The teacher will evaluate both the degree of understanding of the topics based on the completeness of the answers and the student's ability to establish connections between the various topics, and the technical-scientific language acquired. The final score of the integrated course will be the result of the arithmetic mean of the scores of the two modules.

Other informations

Unit Operation Module:
Attendance at a course is not mandatory but strongly recommended.
in case of severe sanitary emergence lessons and exams could be modified and vairations will be published on Elly page and/or degrre course homepage