Primary Productions

Year of erogation: 
Unit Coordinator: 
Second semester
Year of study: 
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Learning outcomes of the course unit

Animal Productions part:
The student will be able to:
Know the main characteristics of food products of animal origin and acquire the tools necessary to evaluate the principal factors affecting the quality of animal productions
Acquire good knowledge on Functional Anatomy of domestic animals oriented to production aspects in the agro-alimentary sector.
Know the fundamentals of breeding and management techniques of animals destined to the production of main food products of animal origin, with special emphasis on the particular aspects of PDO and PGI products
Plant Production part:
To provide the student with elementary knowledge relating to the process of plant production, with special reference to the processes of growth and development, maturation, harvest and storage of plant food productions for processing. Knowledge on the effects of agricultural practices on crop production (yield and quality) is also provided.
The expected learning outcomes 1) Knowledge and ability to understand: knowledge of cells, tissues and organs; knowledge of fundamental concepts (energy concept or electric charge) that regulate the nature, and, in particular, chemical and biological systems; knowledge of livestock, agronomical and environmental that define the quality and food safety; knowledge of biological and microbiological biodiversity. 2) Application abilities: to evaluate the food quality (microbiological, health and hygiene, chemical, physical and nutritional); to individuate and predict the effect of several technological processes on food microbiological quality and safety; to correlate cause/effect dynamics between agronomical technique and fruit and vegetable products. 3) Making judgements: data evaluation and interpretation; to develop a scientific approach to bioethical issues (OGM); critical utilization of data in the scientific literature; evaluation of teaching. 4) Communication ability: oral and written communication with the correct scientific subject language; oral and written communication with the correct scientific subject language, linked to food; capacity of presentation, transmission and dissertation of subjects linked to food (from production to consumption); communicating capacity with expert and non-expert people of food sector, and, when trained to work, to superiors and/or clients; capacity of communication and collaboration in working groups focused on food. 5) Ability to learn; capacity of studying of bibliographic material, food data base (included market data) and food regulatory instruments; capacity of food web site consulting; developing a scientific approach to bioethical issues, related to food production, commercialization and consumption; capacity of independently expand the scientific background and of updating on food scientific and technological developments; capacity of frequenting profitably the Master degree of LM70 class and, in particular, the master degree in Food science and technology.

Course contents summary

Animal Productions part:
Basic elements of anatomy: digestive system, muscle and udder.
Characteristics of meat quality: beef, pork, lamb and goat, poultry, horsemeat and wild game. Factors affecting meat quality. Carcass and cuts evaluation. Overview of techniques used in raising animals for meat production. Main Italian and foreign bovine, ovine and swine breeds raised for meat production and commercial swine and poultry hybrids. Particularities in breeding and management of animals for main Italian PDO and PGI meat products.
Milk characteristics: physical-chemical properties, variability factors of the composition of cow, buffalo, sheep and goat milk. Milk quality factors for fresh consumption and production of dairy products – Main Italian and foreign bovine, ovine and caprine breeds raised for milk production. Particularities in the management of animals for main Italian PDO and PGI cheeses.
Egg production, characteristics and quality factors.
Honey production and characteristics. Basic beekeeping.
Elements of classification of fishes, shellfishes and mollusks used as human food; characteristics of fish meats.
Plant production part:
INTRODUCTION TO PLANT PRODUCTION: Factors of production. Origins of agriculture and of cultivated crops. Yield and quality.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Development and dry matter partitioning. Analysis and growth indexes (canopy).

SEED PROPAGATION: Seed characteristics and germination in field crops. Dormancy. Sowing and sowing machinery.
AGAMIC PROPAGATION: Apomixy. Layering and other traditional techniques. Cuttings and grafting. Nursery.
CLIMATIC VARIABLES: radiation, temperature, rainfall. Crop injury by high and low temperatures.
PLANTS AND WATER: crop needs. Soil available water. Field capacity and wilting point. Effects of drought and water flooding. Irrigation methods and their efficiency.
PLANT NUTRITION: Main mineral nutrients; excess and deficiency. Antagonisms. Interactions. Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur. Micronutrients: iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, chloride.
FERTILISATION: The main available mineral fertilisers. Organic fertilisers. Fertirrigation. Crop needs.
WEEDS AND HERBICIDES: Agronomical and chemical weed control. Effects of herbicides on plants and their behaviour in the soil.
SOIL: physical, chemical and biological properties. Management of water flooding. Drainage.
ROOT SYSTEMS: Development of the root system of field and fruit crops. Methods of root investigations. Indexes of root growth.
SOIL TILLAGE: Preparatory and complementary tillage operations. Plough and ploughing. Other tillage tools. Alternative techniques.
AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: Monoculture, polyculture; intercropping; crop rotation. Organic farming. Cover crops.
PLANT AND SOIL WATER: Hydrologic cycle. Goals of soil water management. Irrigated crop production.

Recommended readings

BORTOLAMI R., CALLEGARI E., CLAVENZANI P., BEGHELLI V.: Anatomia e Fisiologia degli animali Domestici, Calderini – Edagricole, Bologna, 2009.
Bittante G., Andrighetto I., Ramanzin M. Tecniche di produzione animale. Liviana Editrice, Padova
L'allevamento ovino. Associazione Nazionale della Pastorizia, Roma
Alais C. Scienza del Latte. Tecniche Nuove (terza Edizione)
Fabbri A., 2001 - Produzioni Vegetali. Edagricole.
Ceccon P., Fagnano M., Grignani C., Monti M., Orlandini S. , 2017 Agronomia
Giardini L., 2002 - Agronomia generale : ambientale e aziendale. 5. ed. – Patron, Bologna.
Giardini L., 2003. A come Agronomia. Patron, Bologna.
Bonciarelli F. 1995 - Fondamenti di Agronomia Generale. Edagricole.
Hartmann H.T., Kester D.E. - Propagazione delle piante. Edagricole.
Landi R., 1999 - Agronomia ambiente. Edagricole, Bologna.

Teaching methods

Classroom lectures with PowerPoint presentation.
The PowerPoint presentations, utilized for lectures, are uploaded on Elly weekly
Lessons will be organized in the presence of the students, with the possibility of taking lessons in synchronous mode (via Teams) and asynchronous (uploaded in the Elly page of the course).
The instruction will be carried out with frontal lessons in classroom with the support of slides, which will integrate the book as teaching material. Slides will be available on line on the website

Assessment methods and criteria

Animal Productions part: Written and oral exam.
Written exam is a multiple-choice test, only one correct answer, 30 questions. The test is considered sufficient when at least 18 answers are correct. Who passes the written test is admitted to the oral test.
Normally, the oral test follows the correction of the written test immediately.
If the sanitary emergency persists, only the oral test will be performed, by means of the Teams platform.
Plant Production part:
Written exam
Test with 3 open questions.
The score per each question goes from 0 to 10. The exam is considered passed if the minimum score of 18 is reached.

Other informations

In case of serious sanitary emergency, the educational provision and the verification of learning modes could suffer modification that will be promptly communicated on the Elly website and/or on the degree program website.