Plant Production

Teachers: 
Credits: 
6
Year of erogation: 
2021/2022
Unit Coordinator: 
Disciplinary Sector: 
General Arboriculture and Tree Cultivation
Semester: 
Second semester
Year of study: 
1
Language of instruction: 

Italian

Parent activity: 

Learning outcomes of the course unit

To provide the student with elementary knowledge relating to the process of plant production, with special reference to the processes of growth and development, maturation, harvest and storage of plant food productions for processing. Knowledge on the effects of agricultural practices on crop production (yield and quality) is also provided.
The expected learning outcomes 1) Knowledge and ability to understand: knowledge of cells, tissues and organs; knowledge of fundamental concepts (energy concept or electric charge) that regulate the nature, and, in particular, chemical and biological systems; knowledge of livestock, agronomical and environmental that define the quality and food safety; knowledge of biological and microbiological biodiversity. 2) Application abilities: to evaluate the food quality (microbiological, health and hygiene, chemical, physical and nutritional); to individuate and predict the effect of several technological processes on food microbiological quality and safety; to correlate cause/effect dynamics between agronomical technique and fruit and vegetable products. 3) Making judgements: data evaluation and interpretation; to develop a scientific approach to bioethical issues (OGM); critical utilization of data in the scientific literature; evaluation of teaching. 4) Communication ability: oral and written communication with the correct scientific subject language; oral and written communication with the correct scientific subject language, linked to food; capacity of presentation, transmission and dissertation of subjects linked to food (from production to consumption); communicating capacity with expert and non-expert people of food sector, and, when trained to work, to superiors and/or clients; capacity of communication and collaboration in working groups focused on food. 5) Ability to learn; capacity of studying of bibliographic material, food data base (included market data) and food regulatory instruments; capacity of food web site consulting; developing a scientific approach to bioethical issues, related to food production, commercialization and consumption; capacity of independently expand the scientific background and of updating on food scientific and technological developments; capacity of frequenting profitably the Master degree of LM70 class and, in particular, the master degree in Food science and technology.

Prerequisites

Knowledge on Plant biology

Course contents summary

INTRODUCTION TO PLANT PRODUCTION: Factors of production. Origins of agriculture and of cultivated crops. Yield and quality.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Development and dry matter partitioning. Analysis and growth indexes (canopy).

SEED PROPAGATION: Seed characteristics and germination in field crops. Dormancy. Sowing and sowing machinery.
AGAMIC PROPAGATION: Apomixy. Layering and other traditional techniques. Cuttings and grafting. Nursery.
CLIMATIC VARIABLES: radiation, temperature, rainfall. Crop injury by high and low temperatures.
PLANTS AND WATER: crop needs. Soil available water. Field capacity and wilting point. Effects of drought and water flooding. Irrigation methods and their efficiency.
PLANT NUTRITION: Main mineral nutrients; excess and deficiency. Antagonisms. Interactions. Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur. Micronutrients: iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, chloride.
FERTILISATION: The main available mineral fertilisers. Organic fertilisers. Fertirrigation. Crop needs.
WEEDS AND HERBICIDES: Agronomical and chemical weed control. Effects of herbicides on plants and their behaviour in the soil.
SOIL: physical, chemical and biological properties. Management of water flooding. Drainage.
ROOT SYSTEMS: Development of the root system of field and fruit crops. Methods of root investigations. Indexes of root growth.
SOIL TILLAGE: Preparatory and complementary tillage operations. Plough and ploughing. Other tillage tools. Alternative techniques.
AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: Monoculture, polyculture; intercropping; crop rotation. Organic farming. Cover crops.
PLANT AND SOIL WATER: Hydrologic cycle. Goals of soil water management. Irrigated crop production.

Course contents

INTRODUCTION TO PLANT PRODUCTION: Factors of production. Origins of agriculture and of cultivated crops. Yield and quality.
GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT: Development and dry matter partitioning. Analysis and growth indexes (canopy).

SEED PROPAGATION: Seed characteristics and germination in field crops. Dormancy. Sowing and sowing machinery.
AGAMIC PROPAGATION: Apomixy. Layering and other traditional techniques. Cuttings and grafting. Nursery.
CLIMATIC VARIABLES: radiation, temperature, rainfall. Crop injury by high and low temperatures.
PLANTS AND WATER: crop needs. Soil available water. Field capacity and wilting point. Effects of drought and water flooding. Irrigation methods and their efficiency.
PLANT NUTRITION: Main mineral nutrients; excess and deficiency. Antagonisms. Interactions. Macronutrients: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sulphur. Micronutrients: iron, manganese, boron, zinc, copper, molybdenum, chloride.
FERTILISATION: The main available mineral fertilisers. Organic fertilisers. Fertirrigation. Crop needs.
WEEDS AND HERBICIDES: Agronomical and chemical weed control. Effects of herbicides on plants and their behaviour in the soil.
SOIL: physical, chemical and biological properties. Management of water flooding. Drainage.
ROOT SYSTEMS: Development of the root system of field and fruit crops. Methods of root investigations. Indexes of root growth.
SOIL TILLAGE: Preparatory and complementary tillage operations. Plough and ploughing. Other tillage tools. Alternative techniques.
AGRICULTURAL SYSTEMS: Monoculture, polyculture; intercropping; crop rotation. Organic farming. Cover crops.
PLANT AND SOIL WATER: Hydrologic cycle. Goals of soil water management. Irrigated crop production.

Recommended readings

Fabbri A., 2001 - Produzioni Vegetali. Edagricole.
Ceccon P., Fagnano M., Grignani C., Monti M., Orlandini S. , 2017 Agronomia
EDISES
Giardini L., 2002 - Agronomia generale : ambientale e aziendale. 5. ed. – Patron, Bologna.
Giardini L., 2003. A come Agronomia. Patron, Bologna.
Bonciarelli F. 1995 - Fondamenti di Agronomia Generale. Edagricole.
Hartmann H.T., Kester D.E. - Propagazione delle piante. Edagricole.
Landi R., 1999 - Agronomia ambiente. Edagricole, Bologna.

Teaching methods

Lessons will be organized in the presence of the students, with the possibility of taking lessons in synchronous mode (via Teams) and asynchronous (uploaded in the Elly page of the course).
The instruction will be carried out with frontal lessons in classroom with the support of slides, that will integrate the book as teaching material. Slides will be available on line on the website https://elly.saf.unipr.it/2020/

Assessment methods and criteria

Written exam
Test with 3 open questions.
The score per each question goes from 0 to 10. The exam is considered passed if the minimum score of 18 is reached.

Other informations

In case of serious sanitary emergency, the educational provision and the verification of learning modes could suffer modification that will be promptly communicated on the Elly website and/or on the degree program website.